ANNOTATION. To obtain a carrier for a catalyst for the hydrogenation of poly-α-olefinic oil, the starting diatomite, before applying the active metal phase, was subjected to thermal and acidic treatment with hydrochloric acid. The surface structure and morphological changes of diatomite were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and BET.
A 1.0% Pd / D-HCI-500 catalyst was prepared by adsorption. The average particle size of palladium on a carrier is determined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was studied in the reaction of hydrogenation of poly-α-olefinic oils at a temperature of 120 ° C and a hydrogen pressure of 1.0 MPa of batch action Parr-4848.
Introduction. Scientific and technical progress in mechanical engineering, leading to the tightening of equipment operating conditions, to the creation of instruments requiring high performance lubricants that cannot be achieved in mineral-based lubricants. Also, the desire to save energy and fuel economy, to extend the service life of equipment, to improve the ecology of the environment, has intensified the involvement of synthetic and mineral-synthetic base oils in the lubricants.
There are several types of oil classification: composition, viscosity, application, etc. The composition of synthetic oils is divided into alkyl aromatic, polyalphaolefin (PAO), polybutene, polyester, oils, etc. Due to the absence of heteroatomic compounds, the availability of raw materials and the relatively low price of the final product, in recent years, the most used synthetic oils are poly-α-olefinic oils (PAOM). PAOM belong to the API classification group IV. This is the most demanded type of synthetic lubricating oils that fully meet modern technological and environmental requirements for lubricating oils. They are a hydrogenated product of oligomerization (co-oligomerization) α-olefins (mainly decene-1). Along with decent-1, α-olefins C6, C8, C12, C14, and their mixtures are used .
The selection of catalysts and process conditions allows you to synthesize PAO with desired properties. PAOMs are characterized by a high viscosity index (120–160), flash point (above 210 ° C), thermal oxidative stability, low pour point (from -55 to -65 ° C), low evaporability . PAOM retains all the benefits of mineral oils (for example, inertness to structural materials, low toxicity, etc.). Due to the high thermal-oxidative stability of PAOM, it is possible to significantly increase the service life of synthetic hydrocarbon oils in comparison with mineral oils.
At present, dispersed Ni-catalysts are widely used in the production of PAOM, in most cases widely used. The process of hydrogenation on nickel catalysts takes place at high temperatures (120–180 ° C) and at high pressure (10–20 MPa); many researchers, to improve the activity of the process of hydrogenation of synthetic and mineral-synthetic base oils, used various metals, mainly noble, as a catalyst ( Pd, Ru, Pt, Rh, Ir) . The use of palladium catalysts in the PAOM hydrogenation process allows one to carry out the hydrogenation process under mild conditions; the catalyst also shows higher activity.
We carried out research, in the process of PAOM-4 hydrogenation (TANECO JSC, Nizhnekamsk, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia) palladium catalysts (1.0 wt.% Pd) were used, deposited on activated diatomite. The activity of the catalyst, the iodine number, and the degree of hydrogenation of the products obtained were determined.
The results obtained for the investigation of the activity of the PAOM-4 catalyst developed in the hydrogenation reaction show that low-percentage palladium catalysts (1.0 wt.% Pd) deposited on diatomite exhibit high activity. The hydrogenation temperature from 120 ° C provides a high degree of hydrogenation equal to 98.2% and an iodine number of 0.58 g I2 / 100g.
1. I.A. Arutyunov, A.V. Kulik, S.N. Potapova, O.L. Ivanisko, D.V. Svetikov, E.V. Korolev. Synthetic base oils // Scientific and Technical Bulletin of JSC "NK Rosneft" 4-2016. 45. 87-91 P.
2. Pat 5856612 (US)
3. Tsvetkov O. N. Catalytic processes in the technology of polyalphaolefinic oils // Catalysis in industry. 2002. №6. 33-40 P.
|Publication||IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science|
|Affiliation of speaker||Al-farabi Kazakh National University|
|Position of speaker||PhD doctorant|