The aim of the work is to study the process of burning solid fuel in heat sources of low power as a source of formation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and atmospheric pollution of cities of the Irkutsk region.
The objects of the study were heating boilers and house furnaces with a capacity of up to 1 MW with a layered periodic (cyclic) mode of burning typical coal and firewood grades in Eastern Siberia.
In the studied objects, the dynamics of emissions of products of incomplete combustion of solid fuels was studied. The influence of temperature and oxygen, the type of fuel and method of its combustion, the design of the combustion device on the ecological efficiency of combustion and the formation of harmful substances has been established.
A method for calculating specific and gross emissions of harmful substances based on the determination of their total emissions during the combustion cycle of the fuel is proposed. Experimentally found specific emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, soot, benzo(a)pyrene and 10 PAHs from boiler and house furnaces, burning stone (Cheremkhovsky, Tuguysky) and brown (Azeisky, Mugunsky, Borodinsky) coals, firewood (pine), fuel oil . It has been established that the difference between specific emissions of harmful substances is largely determined by the type of fuel (coal, fuel oil, wood) than the brand of coal. PAH is dominated by 3,4 nuclear compounds with low carcinogenic activity. The lowest specific emissions of benzo(a)pyrene are found for heat sources that burn wood and fuel oil.
The structure of boilers and the share of furnace heating for the Irkutsk Region and its 10 major cities, as well as the types and quantities of fuel consumed by them, have been studied. The gross emissions of the investigated products of incomplete combustion into the atmosphere of cities are estimated. It is shown that the maximum emissions of harmful substances were found in the cities with the largest share of furnace heating and the minimum - in cities with central heating, including industrial cities. Direct correlations are obtained between the content of benzo(a)pyrene in the atmosphere of a number of cities and the values of its gross emissions.
Proposed measures to reduce emissions of harmful and carcinogenic substances from low-power heat sources by optimizing the combustion process (fuel type, coal fractionation, high-quality air supply), upgrading small boilers (mechanical supply of fractionated coal), introducing alternative heat sources and fuel (electrical installations, wood waste, gas).
|Affiliation of speaker||Irkutsk National Research Technical University|
|Position of speaker||Professor, Department of Industrial Ecology and Life Safety|
|Publication||IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science|