Today, clearcuts cause the greatest harm to the environment. The consequence of clearcutting is the emergence of: waterlogging of the soil, soil erosion, disturbance of the water and air regime, slower plant growth, animal migration, etc. All these consequences lead to the main problem - the destruction of the ecosystem at the site of felling.
Therefore, the purpose of this work is to reduce the impact of forest felling on the environment by means of modern technology, optimal harvesting methods, and the use of high-energy reforestation methods.
Currently, logging is carried out by equipment that does not comply with both ecological and technical standards. This equipment is not rational both from the side of performance, and from the side of environmental impact. Therefore, in this work the modern high-performance logging complexes that cause minimal damage to the environment are offered to use.
The choice of the timber harvesting method is also important. During clearcuts processing the technologies of both areas, and cutting intervals are not followed. The safest for the environment felling method is to carry out selective felling, but it is not economically feasible. Hence, the most optimal felling method is to carry out gradual felling, since the plantation has time to recover during the cutting interval.
In addition, the final step in sustainable forest management is reforestation. Artificial reforestation is almost always carried out only with conifers, which have both a lower density, and a lower heat of combustion. Since most of the wood in Russian Federation is used as an energy raw material, it is more rational to renew it with deciduous species. We suggest carrying out a mixed renewal, as it has several advantages over the restoration by a single breed.
As a result of this investigation, it was found that the correct choice of equipment and methods of logging and afforestation can allow performing forest management in more rational way.
|Publication||IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science|
|Affiliation of speaker||ITMO UNIVERSITY|
|Position of speaker||Student|