Small surface water bodies (SSWB) play an important role in the formation of the territorial channel structure of the locality. The resource potential of SSWB is represented a set of water resources that characterize the biological, fisheries and recreational value of the ecosystem of the locality, which can be used for socio-economic activities, based on minimizing environmental damage. The resource potential of SSWB is use without taking into account the adverse environmental consequences that already occur or are only expected, should be compensate by measures to improve, reproduce the natural environment, so it is necessary to develop a compensation mechanism.
The principle of compensation for prevented damage is use when assessing the anthropogenic impact on SSWB in accordance with the current environmental legislation of the Russian Federation. Averted damage is compensation for potential environmental damage in monetary form. Calculations for the hazard level, mass of pollutants and coefficients are takes into account environmental factors in accordance with the accepted methodology.
The characteristics of the environment don't change with the arrival of a small amount of pollutants, as the effect of the assimilation potential of the territory works. Environmental damage may not be observe in this case. Harmful substances can form compounds during interaction that have a higher hazard class, which is not take into account in the calculations.
The methods for calculating the economic damage caused and prevented damage are using them, the latter repeatedly exceeded. This circumstance is due to the fact that the economic damage can be comparable to the assimilation potential of the territory, and the prevented damage can be both greater and less than the assimilation capacity.
The economic damage caused by environmental pollution can exceed the existing payments and fines many times over. The prevented damage may represent accumulated damage, which does not fully reflect the effects of exposure from the input of pollutants, since the damage from the cumulative input of pollutants may be greater than from the current pollution, and vice versa, the current pollution may have a prolonged consequence of a negative impact on the environment.
The disadvantage of calculating the prevented damage is that when negative factors occur in the system «water-air-soil-biota», regional and local features and time interval are not taken into account in our opinion. Practice shows that the negative effects of pollutants can have a prolonged effect, that is, in order to reflect real changes in the properties of the environment under anthropogenic influence, it is necessary to link to a time period and include externalities in the calculation.
The degree of environmental impact can be considered through the principles of compensation for potentially negative impacts from the point of view of preventive measures. The compensation mechanism can be a set of environmental protection measures and the costs of their implementation. The informative and legal basis for the implementation of an effective manifestation of the compensation mechanism is not the volume a forecast change in the degree of environmental quality in relation to the region as a result of its admission to this environment, taking into account the costs associated with the implementation of the proposed environmental protection measures. The compensation mechanism formula may look like this:
КМ=∑▒[M_iC_iK_pi*K_п ] (1)
где Мi – number of environmental protection measures, units.;
Сi – cost assessment of environmental protection measures, RUB.;
Kpi – coefficient that takes into account the regional and local characteristics of the territory, taking into account its assimilation capacity;
Кп – the projected degree of change in environmental quality, %.
The total accounting of pollutants will allow to determine the cumulative effect of the impact on a specific natural object, identifying the sources and volumes of potential and real pollution.
The compensation mechanism is a set of costs in physical and cost terms for carrying out environmental protection measures, taking into account the projected development of environmental quality. The authors propose to consider the effect of the compensation mechanism on the definition of natural compensation, which means the obligation of the nature user to carry out environmental protection measures, such as reclamation, reclamation, restoration of disturbed ecosystems. In-kind compensation will include the entire range of nature restoration measures up to a given level of environmental quality.
|Publication||IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science|
|Affiliation of speaker||docent|
|Position of speaker||Доцент|