Sapropel is organic-rich sediments deposited under highly anoxic conditions where deep water ventilation is absent. These dark, fine-grained, and unconsolidated sediments are extracted from the lakes and oceans. Sapropel is used in agricultural production as fertilizer and remediation of soils. Besides, it plays a role in farming, medicine, sauna, etc. The ultrasound treatment can be used to disintegrate sapropel, followed by chemical extraction to derive humic substances. Using the technology developed at the Institute of Lake Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in Saint Petersburg, the ultradisperse humic Sapropel suspension (UDHSS) was extracted using alkaline extraction from sapropel under ultrasonic cavitation. Therefore, this review discusses the effectiveness of using ultradisperse humic Sapropel suspension (UDHSS) in the food industry. This suspension is used to fight microorganisms present in cereal grains and animal feed. According to previous studies, UDHSS has shown antimicrobial properties. Experiments conducted using this suspension on barley grains and distillers' grain proved a decrease in the concentration of fungi and bacteria. In these experiments, barley grains were treated using UDHSS with different dry matter concentrations and humic substance content. Ultradisperse humic Sapropel suspension can be used in ethanol production. For evaluating the prospects of using UDHSS in ethanol preparation, pilot batches of ethanol were produced by fermenting wort obtained from barley treated with UDHSS. The latter influenced the fermentation process parameters: the ethanol concentration, the soluble unfermented sugars, the total soluble sugars, and the undissolved starch in the mash. In the research carried out, the results indicated that a distillate as a by¬product of ethanol obtained from UDHSS treated barley contains less methanol, one of the most toxic congeners, and less 2-¬propanol. Researchers investigated the effects of soil humic substances on the activity and stability of soil enzymes. Therefore, UDHSS containing humic substances can be used to increase the enzymatic activity in the food industry. Due to the high concentration of humic substances in UDHSS, the latter may be used as an adsorbent agent. However, further research is needed to study the effectiveness of UDHSS or humic substances extracted from UDHSS in the neutralization of various mycotoxins. The targeted mycotoxins are Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A (OTA), Fumonisin, Zearalenone (ZEA), and Deoxynivalenol (DON). These are the most common ones that pose a threat to human and animal health. Researchers will establish the adsorbing role of ultradisperse humic-sapropel suspensions. The researchers should also identify its ability to detoxify various mycotoxins without binding useful mineral and vitamin complexes.
Keywords: UDHSS, humic substances (HS), Food industry, ethanol, antimicrobial, mycotoxins.
|Publication||Impact Factor journals|
|Affiliation of speaker||Faculty of Biotechnologies (BioTech), National Research ITMO University|
|Position of speaker||Lecturer|