Abstract: The results of field and analytical studies of oil-contaminated soils of floodplain ecosystems of Western Siberia are considered. The purpose of this study is to identify the features of the content, chemistry and type of distribution of readily soluble salts (including toxic compounds) in the soils of floodplain ecosystems under conditions of local pollution with oil and oil products (OP), as well as the scientific substantiation of the developed method of reclamation of saline soils. Comparison of contaminated soils with background analogs is carried out. It has been established that oil pollution disrupts the functioning of natural soil processes. An assessment of the environmental consequences of oil pollution is given. Methods of recultivation of saline soils are considered, an alternative method of soil restoration is proposed.
Key words: Western Siberia, oil pollution, alluvial soils, properties, ecological consequences.
Pollution of highly mineralized waters of soil ecosystems is currently a complex, urgent problem, which is especially acute in the territories of the oil-producing complex. At the same time, the issues of oil pollution of soils in the zone of humid soil formation have been studied by many authors, however, the processes of salt migration at the time of emergency oil spill practically not studied.
Each accidental spill of crude oil is accompanied by the inflow of highly mineralized streams of salts into the ecosystem, which are the main cause of technogenic soil salinization and form various bituminous soil varieties. The results of statistical analysis indicate a direct correlation between the content of readily soluble salts and oil products in contaminated soils - the correlation coefficient (r) is 0.87 at p = 0.91 (at a depth of 0-10 cm) and 0.83 at p = 0, 76 (at a depth of 10-30 cm). The amount of salts in the saline horizons of soils varies widely from 0.29 to 1.2%, these fluctuations are associated with the accumulation of salts in depressions of the microrelief of the area. Salinity varies from low to medium. Toxic salts are represented by compounds NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2.