Abstract. Air purity is an important factor for all living organisms. As a result of its active development, humanity has created many anthropogenic sources for the pollution of the environment in which it lives, for example, industrial facilities, vehicles, power plants. According to the requirements of the legislation, emissions from anthropogenic objects do not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), but when the factors are combined, they sometimes record an excess of permissible values. For more detailed monitoring, a dense monitoring network based on less expensive sensors can be installed and calibrated with a certified instrument.
Key words: atmosphere monitoring, monitoring network, air quality, pollutant concentrations.
In all cities, depending on such factors as: population, area of the settlement, terrain and degree of industrialization, a certain number of monitoring posts are established in accordance with Guidance document 52.04.186-89 [1, 10 – 13].
In the city of Tomsk, in accordance with document 1 and State report [2, 42 – 43], 7 monitoring posts were established, of which: 1 - urban background, 4 - industrial, 2 - auto. This set of monitoring posts allows you to get a general picture of the pollution of the city, tracking the average annual and maximum single concentrations, since observations are carried out according to an incomplete monitoring program. The location of the monitoring posts is shown in Figure 1.
However, today it is necessary to get a more detailed picture of the air quality in the city. This requires a denser monitoring network with its distribution throughout the city or over the main loaded streets. Such network will not only monitor pollution concentrations, but also detect new sources that can arise both as a result of man-made activities and as a result of natural fires.
One embodiment of such a network is the use of devices assembled from a set of inexpensive sensors and calibrated according to a certified one. A similar approach was used by British colleagues in the work . This option will allow the installation of an extensive network with a given density of sensors for monitoring pollution at the level of streets and/or quarters. Although it is worth considering that the cost of the devices will depend largely on the type of sensor used for pollution control. At the beginning, it is possible to limit the control of substances using the optical method.
Such substances include, for example, particulate particles (PM), the excessive presence of which leads to various diseases, both the human respiratory system and the eyes, as well as the cardiovascular system. In addition, in accordance with , the largest values of the average annual concentration of PM in the city of Tomsk were at post №5 and amounted to 0.9 of maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), and the maximum single concentration of 5 MPC was recorded at post №11. One way to obtain information about the reasons for the occurrence of values other than the total 0.6 MPC is a such detailed network.
Another way of implementing the obtained data is to analyze the air along the streets on which traffic jams are observed during peak hours. In case of high concentration values, it is possible to make recommendations aimed at optimizing traffic, tightening the requirements for emission sources, determining the true sources of pollution.
Figure 1 – Location of monitoring posts
The advantage of such a network is the possibility of modifying the device used on inexpensive sensors. This can be a design change or an optimization of the data processing algorithm. This provides an opportunity for multivariable design of the device and improvement as the technology develops.
1. Guidance document 52.04.186-89 Atmospheric Pollution Control Manual. St. Petersburg, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1991. 694 p. (In Russian)
2. State report. About the environmental state and protection in the Tomsk region in 2019. Tomsk, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Tomsk Region and RSBI “Oblkompriroda” Publ., 2020. 135 p. (In Russian)
3. Munir S., Mayfield M., Coca D., Jubb S.A. Structuring an integrated air quality monitoring network in large urban areas – Discussing the purpose, criteria and deployment strategy. Atmospheric Environment: X, 2019, vol. 2, 100027 p., doi: 10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100027
|Affiliation of speaker||Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS|
|Publication||International journal «Resource-Efficient Technologies»|
|Position of speaker||Graduate student|