The global climate change is one of the actual problems of environmental safety, which affects the structure and functioning of agroecosystems, including the growth, development and productivity of agricultural crops. Currently, the realization of the productivity potential of such strategic crop as wheat largely depends on the environmental sustainability of its species and varieties, especially in adverse environmental conditions. Decrease in the pesticide load on agroecosystems, preventing the foreign substances (xenobiotics) accumulation in the food chains, reducing the probability of harmful organisms’ pesticide-resistant forms appearance in agrocenoses, and the environmentally friendly food production is one of the priority directions of agricultural production. Solutions of environmental safety modern problems are associated, among other things, with the development of innovative technologies, low and non-waste technological cycles that contribute to the rational use of raw materials and reduce the environment anthropological impact from industrial production facilities belonging to category 1 objects, such as enterprises for the slaughter and processing of farm animals, poultry and aquatic bioresources. The search for directions of involvement in the production of new types of products from by-products of protein-containing resources has fundamental importance. If the tonnage of by - products from meat and poultry processing industries alone increases to 4.7 million tons by 2025, the total cost of utilizing food-grade, non-processed protein resources will increase up to $ 2.5 billion a year. Therefore, increasing the level of processing of by-products of the agro-industrial sector and recycling of raw materials has fundamental importance. One of the ways to the wheat yield increasing and the grain quality improving is creation environmentally verified methods of its cultivation, including the use of high-yielding and adaptive to the cultivation conditions cultivars, the development of mathematical systems for the yield programming and meteorological forecast, the agrocenoses phytosanitary situation control and optimization, the application of organo-mineral fertilizers and growth stimulants obtained from organic raw materials. In the researches, long-term data characterizing the wheat productivity and its affection intensity by diseases were compared with the natural and climatic factors of the North-Western region of the Russian Federation, botanical features and the origin of the samples. In particular, it was shown that the minimum development of the yellow rust and powdery mildew was observed on samples from the Northern Europe, the Central/Western Europe; brown and stem rust – on samples from the Central Asia, East, Southeast Asia, Latin (South) America; wheat leaf blotch (septoria)– from Russia (the Asian part). The maximum affection by brown rust was recorded in samples from Africa, by powdery mildew, septoria, and stem rust – from the Minor, Anterior Asia, and the Near and Middle East. The comparative analysis of the protein growth stimulant (PGS) and organomineral fertilizers influence on productivity, yield structure, and disease resistance of the VIR soft wheat was carried out. Organo-mineral fertilizers cause the activation of cell metabolism and contribute to the intensification of physiological processes at different stages of plant development. The combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers increases the yield of plants. Organic matter increases soil fertility by improving its moisture capacity and porosity, optimizing the microbial balance. At the same time, the plants assimilate the available nutrients and mineral fertilizers more effectively. The main active ingredients of the russian preparations "FlorGumat" are natural triterpene compounds and lake sapropel humic substances, "Edagum" and "Fitop-Flora-S" – peat-humic substances,"Zerebra agro" – silver and polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB), protein stimulant – aminoacids and polypeptides. On the basis of the School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems of ITMO and Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, protein-containing systems were obtained from beef slice using the deep processing method. The "Zerebra agro" high biological effectiveness against wheat leaf diseases (brown rust, powdery mildew, septoria), and the "FlorGumat" – against wheat root rot was noted. The greatest influence on the potential (estimated) wheat yield growth was exerted by the preparations "Fitop-Flora-S" and "Zerebra agro". Foliar spraying of plants with the PGS led to an increase in wheat yield by 31.5% and a decrease in wheat affection by powdery mildew but did not affect on brown rust development. As was revealed by microfocus radiography and optical analysis, after wheat treatments by the PGS, an increase in grains size, their fullness and roundness (compared to the control).
|Affiliation of speaker||ITMO University|
|Publication||Impact Factor journals|
|Position of speaker||docent|