As a result of the operation of processing and metallurgical plants that process polymetallic ores, a large amount of waste is generated. The reason for this is the low content of non-ferrous metals in them, a decrease in the quality of processed ore.
Throughout of long-term storage of mining waste, geochemical transformations occur, the composition of components changes, new technogenic minerals are formed, valuable metals are depleted, elements are removed from storage and environmental pollution occurs, including dust formation and migration of natural leaching products of the material into underground water. These processes can last for many years, until they are dissolved and carried out with the waters or neutralized by converting all the metals and chemical compounds contained in the waste into insoluble forms.
The study of technogenic deposits for development is significantly different from the study of natural objects. They are located compactly, directly in the zone of industrial enterprises, while it is necessary to study their unusual and complex mineral composition. Waste from mining and metallurgical industries is a valuable technogenic raw material for obtaining new safe materials, which will also help to reduce the negative impact of their storage.
Processing tailings is more convenient for disposal and use than dumps, because it is more homogeneous, and is already crushed and sometimes fractionated material. Slags acquire a stable composition after 3-5 months of storage in dumps.
Technogenic waste is different in origin, includes overburden and host rock, tailings of processing plants, slag of pyrometallurgical production, etc. There are many examples of technogenic waste processing. Thus, processing tailings are raw materials for the production of building materials, because a significant part of them is represented by silicon-containing rocks. Traditionally, such metallurgical wastes as slags are widely used for the production of building materials ‒ crushed stone, cinder block, cement, refractories, sand and lime. There are also more advanced compositions that allow obtaining materials with the controlled-quality properties, for example, a heat-insulating material with increased strength.
Now a large number of works on the research and development of methods for obtaining building materials from technogenic raw materials of mining and metallurgical industries are known. However, the production of building products from these wastes remains without attention. This work provides research of opportunities for the production of safe building products using technogenic raw materials of these industries.
The storage of solid waste as a potential mineral resource is associated with the cost of taking certain measures to protect it from storage, as well as with the occupation of land, in some cases fertile ground.
Ensuring environmental friendliness and non-waste are the main conditions for the technologies used for processing waste from mining and metallurgical industries.
|Publication||Журнал «Известия ТПУ. Инжиниринг георесурсов»|
|Affiliation of speaker||D.Serikbayev East Kazakhstan Tecnical University|
|Position of speaker||Head scientist researcher|