The article presents the results of the study of environmental objects and their changes within the boundaries of the impact of closed mining enterprises tailing dumps in the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia (FEFD). It is established, that the studied territory is exposed to intensive technogenic pollution from mineral processing wastes that testifies to irrational natural management here. As a result of mineral development, the lands of the forest fund are withdrawn, the productive areas suitable for human activities are reduced. Destroying the soil and vegetation cover over large areas, the humanity thereby contributes to the degradation of the entire human society and to climate change, drought and floods, as the forest is a key element of the entire earth's biosphere, as scientists believe. Therefore, there is a need to restore the productivity of land disturbed by mining. It is shown that the role of forest vegetation restored by reclamation is immeasurable for nature and society. Moreover, this role of plants makes them highly exploitable objects used not only in agriculture, but also in health care, wood using, pulp and paper and other sectors of industry. However, about 1 million hectares of land are currently disturbed only in the southern part of the FEFD. As a result, the living standards of the population are decreasing and the natural resource potential is not being preserved. In this regard, the aim of the study was to substantiate the need to rehabilitate forest lands, exposed to the negative impact of accumulated mineral processing waste as a result of past economic activities of mining enterprises, by conducting forest reclamation using bioremediation methods to ensure their ecological safety. The notion of technogenic surface formations (TSF) was defined. According to the modern classification, these are substrates of technogenic unvegetated and unsoiled landscapes. They include dumps of overburden and host rocks, tailings, sludge dumps. It is shown that technogenic formations of ore development are classified as very hazardous facilities (tailing dumps with toxic wastes). They are a source of intensive technogenic pollution of forest lands, atmospheric air and soil-vegetation cover of adjacent territories over dozens and hundreds kilometers from the source. At mining enterprises in the FEFD, including those closed down, the emergency situations occur during monsoon rains, they can lead to disastrous environmental and social impacts. The unfavourable influence of technogenic formations is a negative factor for the health of mining settlements population. This predetermines the intensification of researches on land reclamation, including forest lands, that will allow to minimize damage to natural environment and human health and solve a strategic task. It has been proved that restoration of technogenically polluted forest lands disturbed by mining operations over a large area in the FEFD is the most important aspect, their negative impact on the environment has already reached alarming proportions. The principles of ensuring environmental safety of toxic waste tailings have been developed. Experimental studies have led to the conclusion that an innovative approach to solving the forest reclamation problem is necessary. The methods of forest reclamation were created, the novelty of which is confirmed by the Patents of the Russian Federation, they include using mixed bark compost, or phototrophic bacteria, or humic preparations, or mycorhizic agent – spent substrate with cultivated strain of Pleurotus ostreatus basidial fungi - common oyster mushroom (bioremediation), etc. An algorithm of actions in solving the problem of rehabilitation of land disturbed by mining by forest reclamation in the Far East region was developed. It has been established that on the surface of tailing dumps the soil-ecological functions are restored for a very short period (one growing season), which is very important, and a stable phytocenosis is formed. Scientific and practical relevance of the research results consists in rationale of a problem of favorable environment creation for mining settlement inhabitants and ecological safety of toxic wastes storage, rational natural resources use at the mining enterprises. The technological solution to minimize the waste impact was proposed and recommended for use not only in the Far Eastern Federal District, but also at other mining enterprises in Russia and countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. It was characterized in terms of social significance, investment attractiveness and commercial potential, as well as competitive advantages.
|Affiliation of speaker||Pacific National University, Far East Forestry Research Institute|
|Position of speaker||Professor|
|Publication||IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science|