The refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pumping industries are essential sectors of the world economy. The list of the major synthetic refrigerants characterized by the nonflammability, low toxicity, good thermoplysical properties and stability are reviewed. The HCFCs and fully halogenated CFCs refrigerants are responsible for the destruction of stratospheric ozone. The conversion from the CFCs and HCFCs has been considered as an opportunity to develop the chlorine free working fluids – hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
A set of hydrogen – containing fluorocarlons with the zero ozone depletion are currently the focus of efforts by the chemical producers. The paper details the effects of two allergens – the global climate change and the depletion of stratospheric ozone due to chlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons. This situation has been estimated as sufficient to cause alarm. The urgent task today is to develop harmless refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential and a minimal greenhouse effect potentials. Between candidates for the replacement of CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs has been estimated hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) which have an short atmospheric lifetime and the ultra low global warming potentials. The idea to synthesize the ideal working fluid as shown in this paper after about hundred years of the experience seems not realistic. On the other hand between the natural refrigerants the excellent working fluid is ammonia. The paper details hydrocarbons such as propane, isobutene, suggested as refrigerants. The carbon dioxide can be used to expand a potentially limited set of natural working fluids. The natural compounds are excellent refrigerants but the toxicity, flammability, high pressure limited their more large commercial realization. It’s shown that it has crucial for refrigeration industry to design and manufacture more intensive refrigeration equipment with natural refrigerants to meet endless mandatory regulation and deadlines.
|Publication||IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science|
|Affiliation of speaker||University ITMO|