The report presents the results of multi-year research conducted within the impact of closed mining enterprises located in the Amur River basin: Solnechny GOK, Khrustalnensky GOK, Khingansky GOK in the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD). The article discusses current problems of formation, processing and accumulation of giant volumes of mining waste on the Earth's surface in the Far Eastern Federal District and, as a result, intensive pollution of the ecosphere. Thus, the study was aimed at assessing a degree of tin ore processing waste hazard as an object of ecological catastrophe threat at closed mining enterprises in the Amur River basin having biosphere importance. The research was conducted using generally accepted modern physicochemical, chemical, geoecological, forest survey, biological and mathematical-statistical methods. The best experience of developed countries as well as domestic innovations of this problem solving were analyzed. The hazard assessment of wastes as a threat of ecological disasters that have already occurred in the mining enterprises of the Far Eastern Federal District is given. It has been experimentally established that the hazard class of the studied wastes is 2 (highly hazardous). It was found out that tailing dumps containing hazardous wastes are not included into the register of hazardous wastes. Their dams, the base of which is made of tailing material, were destroyed. Mineralogical composition of the waste is characterized by high content of arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite and other minerals. In their chemical composition there were found extremely high concentrations of sulphide and heavy metal (HM) and arsenic compounds migrating along the chain: waste, snow, soil, water, vegetation, human. Waste is an object of high risk, as evidenced by the highest levels of pollutants (HM and arsenic compounds) in the air basin, soil, water bodies, vegetation, exceeding the background (up to 10 times) and MPC (5 - 43), especially near the tailing dumps. The situation in the study area is aggravated by the monsoon nature of the climate, which contributes to the development of erosive processes on the tailing dump surface with formation of ravines more than 1 m deep and the removal of pollutants in suspended state up to 80% in the Amur River, having a biosphere value. Innovative proposals have been developed to reduce the real threat of environmental disasters at the mining enterprises of the Far Eastern Federal District, the novelty of which has been confirmed by Russian Patents 2015, 2017, 2019 [1-3].
This work was supported by the RFBR [grant numbers 20-35-90021]; the State assignment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation [grant number 075-03-2020-121/4]; and the Russian scientific fund [grant numbers 15-17-10016].
- The patent Russian Federation No 2569582 2015 Krupskaya LT, Kirienko OA, Mayorova LP, Golubev DA, Onishchenko MS Method for the restoration of the surface of a tailing dump containing toxic waste using phototrophic bacteria. Bul 33
- The patent Russian Federation No 2672453 2017 Krupskaya LT, Rastanina NK, Golubev DA, Filatova MU Composition for dust suppression for the restoration of the surface of the tailings. Bul 32
- The patent Russian Federation No 2707030 2019 Krupskaya LT, Ishchenko EA, Golubev DA, Kolobanov KA, Rastanina NK Composition for reduction of dust load on ecosphere and reclamation of tailings dump surface. Bul. 33.